#didyouknow: The great Turkish Islamic scientists and doctors Zekeriya Er-Razi (854-932), Farabi (870-950) and Ibn Sina (980-1037) established principles and musical modes called "Makams" which was applied to the treatment of psychological disorders through musical therapy during the Ottoman era. Some of these makams/musical modes included: Rast makam which brings a person happiness and comfort, Uşşak makam which brings a person the feeling of laughter, and Hüseyni makam which brings a person serenity and ease. (Painting below shows music therapy applied by physicians. Source: Amasya Selçuklu Osmanlı mimarisi ve benzemeleri, edited by Nil Sari, Gülbün Mesara, Ü. Emrah Kurt, Istanbul, 2007)