@BeingSalmanKhan Story of the Prophet Adam (Alaihis Salaam) : Informing the Angels About Adam:- Allah the Almighty revealed: And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth.” They said: ‘Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, – while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You.” He (Allah) said: “I know that which you do not know.” Surah 2: 30 And He taught Adam all the names (of everything), then He showed them to the angels and said: “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.” They (angels) said: “Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily, it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise.” He said: “0 Adam! Inform them of their names,” and when he had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the Ghaib (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing?” And (remember) when He said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves before Adam.” And they prostrated except Iblis, he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah).” Surah 2: 31-34 And He said: “0 Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimeen (wrong-doers).” Then the Satan made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. He said: “Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.” Surah 2: 35-36 Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful. He said: “Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance, there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve. But those who disbelieve and belie Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) such are the dwellers of the Fire, they shall abide therein forever.” Surah 2: 38-39 Iblis (Satan), Man’s Enemy : Iblis’s Arrogance Almighty Allah also revealed: And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being), then We told the angels, “Prostrate to Adam’; and they prostrated, except Iblis, he refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: ‘What prevented you (0 Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you?” (Iblis) said: “I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.” (Allah) said: “0 Iblis, get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.” Surah 7: 11-13 Commentary: Iblis’s Refusal to Prostrate Ibn Jarir reported that Muhammad Ibn Sirin said that the first one to reach a conclusion by reasoning was Iblis and that the sun and moon were not worshipped except through this method. This means that Iblis tried to compare himself to Adam. He believed that he was more honorable than Adam. Therefore, he abstained from prostrating, even though Allah had commanded him to do so, just as He had commanded the angels. If an analogy is made, we see that Iblis is vain. For indeed, clay is better than fire because in it can be found the qualities of calmness, clemency, perseverance, and growth; whereas in fire can be found heedlessness, insignificance, haste, and incineration. Iblis tried in vain to justify his refusal: “Shall I prostrate to one whom You created from clay?” (Iblis) said: “See? This one whom You have honored above me, if You give me respite (keep me alive) to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring (by sending them astray) all but a few!” Surah 17: 62 Iblis’s Vow for Evil (Iblis) said: “Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (i.e. The Day of Resurrection).” (Allah) said: “You are of those allowed respite.” (Iblis) said: “Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path. Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them as thankful ones (i.e. they will not be dutiful to You).” (Allah) said (to Iblis): “Get out from this (Paradise) disgraced and expelled. Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely I will fill Hell with you all.” Surah 7: 14-18 Eating from the Forbidden Tree “And 0 Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof as you both wish, but approach not this tree otherwise you both will be of the Zalimeen (unjust and wrong-doers).” Then Satan whispered suggestions to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their private parts (before); he said: “Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.” And he (Satan) swore by Allah to them both (saying): “Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.” So he misled them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to stick together the leaves of Paradise over themselves (in order to cover their shame). And their Lord called out to them (saying): “Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Satan is an open enemy unto you?” They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” Allah said: “Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (i.e. Adam, Eve, and Satan, etc.). On earth will be a dwelling-place for you and an enjoyment, – for a time.” He said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (i.e., resurrected). Surah 7: 19-25 Traditions About Iblis There were many traditions about Iblis at the time of the Prophet Muhammad . Ibn Masud, Ibn Abbas, and a group of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad said that Iblis had been the head of the angels in the worldly heavens. Ibn Abbas said in one narration that his name had been Azazil, and in another narration he said it had been Al-Harith. Ibn ‘Abbas also said that Iblis was a jinn and that they had once been the keepers of Paradise, with Iblis the most honorable, the most learned and the most pious of them. Another tradition says that he had been one of the famous four possessors of wings (i.e. angels), before Allah transformed him into the accursed Satan. Iblis’s Vow to Mislead – Surah 38 Allah Almighty recounts Iblis’s disobedience in another surah: (Remember) when your Lord said to the angels: “Truly I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.” So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them: except Iblis, he was proud and was one of the disbelievers. (Allah) said: “0 Iblis! What prevents you from prostrating yourself to one whom I have created with Both My Hands. Are you too proud (to fall prostrate to Adam) or are you one of the high exalted?” (Iblis) said “I am better than he, You created me from fire, and You created him from clay.” (Allah) said: “Then get you from here, for verily, you are outcast. And verily!, My Curse is on you till the Day of Recompense.” (Iblis) said: ‘My Lord! Give me then respite till the Day the (dead) are resurrected.” Allah said: “Verily! You are of those allowed respite – till the Day of the time appointed.” Iblis said: “By Your Might, then I will surely mislead them all, – except Your chosen slaves amongst them (faithful, obedient, true believers of Islamic Monotheism).” (Allah) said: “The truth is, and the truth I say, – that I will fill Hell with you (Iblis) and those of them (mankind) that follow you, together.” Surah 38: 71-85 Commentary: Prostrating before Adam We imagine when Allah the Almighty decided to create Adam: He addressed His angels and told them to prostrate before him. He did not mean to ask their opinion or take their advice, for He is above that. Allah the Exalted told them that He was going to create a vicegerent on the earth who would have children and grandchildren who would corrupt the earth and shed each other’s blood. That is why the angels said to Allah the Almighty: “Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood!” Surah 2:30 Traditions about the Angels There are old traditions about the angels before the creation of Adam. According to Ibn Qatadah, it was said that the angels were informed about the creation of Adam and his progeny by the jinn who lived before Adam. ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar said that the jinn had existed for about two thousand years before Adam and then shed blood. Therefore, Allah sent on them an army of angels that drove them out to the depths of the seas. Thn Abi Hatim narrated from Ali Jafar Al-Baqer that the angels were informed that man would cause wickedness and shed blood on earth. It was also said that they knew that no one would be created on earth who would not be wicked and shed blood. Whether or not these traditions are correct, the angels did understand that Allah would create a vicegerent on earth. Allah the Almighty announced that He was going to create a human being out of clay, that He would mold him and blow His spirit into him, and then the angels should prostrate before him. Creation-Brief Version of the Creation of Man Abi Musa Al-Shaarai narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: “Allah created Adam from a handful of dust taken from different lands, so the children of Adam have been created according to the composition of the land. Therefore, from mankind we have white, red, black and yellow ones; we have good and evil, ease and sorrow, and what comes in between them.” Getting the Clay to Make Man Ibn Masud and other companions of the Prophet said that Allah the Almighty sent Jibraeel onto the earth to get Him clay therefrom. The earth said: “I seek refuge in Allah from your decreasing my quantity or disfiguring me.” So Jibraeel returned and did not take anything. And he said: “My Lord, the land sought refuge in You, and it was granted.” So Allah sent Mikaaeel for the same purpose, and the land sought refuge with Allah and it was granted. So he went back and said to Allah what Jibraeel had said before him. Then Allah sent the Angel of Death, and the land sought refuge in Allah. The angel said: “I also seek refuge with Allah from returning without carrying out His command.” So he took clay from the face of the earth and mixed it. He did not take from one particular place, but rather he took white, red, and black clay (from different places). The Angel of Death ascended with it, and He (Allah) soaked the clay till it became sticky. Then Allah said to the angels: “Truly, I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me. Then you fall down prostrate to him. Surah 38: 71-72 The Angels’ Fear of Adam So Allah shaped Adam into a human being, but he remained a figure of clay for forty years. The angels went past him. They were seized with fear by what they saw, and Iblis felt this fear most. He used to pass by the figure of Adam, buffeting it, which would make a sound like pottery. Allah told us: He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery. Surah 55: 14 The Breathing of Allah’s Spirit When the time drew near to breathe the spirit into Adam, as Allah the Almighty decreed, He commanded the angels: ‘When I breathe My spirit into him prostrate before him.” Allah breathed His spirit into Adam and when it reached his head Adam sneezed. The angels said: “Say all praise belongs to Allah.” Adam repeated: “All praise belongs to Allah.” Allah said to him: “Your Lord has granted you mercy.” When the spirit reached his eyes, Adam looked at the fruits of Paradise. When it reached his abdomen Adam felt an appetite for food. He jumped hurriedly before the spirit could reach his legs, so that he could eat from the fruits of Paradise. Allah, therefore, said: Man is created of haste. Surah 21: 37 And then: The angels prostrated themselves, all of them together. Except Iblis – he refused to be among the prostrators. Surah 15: 31-32 Establishing the Islamic Greeting Abu Hurairah narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: “Allah created Adam from dust after He mixed the clay and left him for some time until it became sticky mud, after which Allah shaped him. After that Allah left him till it became like potter’s clay. Iblis used to go past him saying: ‘You have been created for a great purpose.’ After that Allah breathed His spirit into him. The first thing into which the spirit passed was his eye and then his nose. He sneezed. Allah said: ‘May your Lord have mercy upon you, 0 Adam! Go to those angels and see what they would say.’ So Adam went and greeted them. They replied saying: ‘Peace be upon you and the mercy and blessings of Allah.’ Allah said: ’0 Adam! This is your greeting and that of your offspring. Sahih Al-Bukhari Creation of Eve – The Reason for Eve’s Creation Adam knew the names of everything. Sometimes he talked to the angels, but they were preoccupied with worshiping Almighty Allah. Therefore, Adam felt lonely. One day he slept and when he awoke he found, near his head, a woman gazing at his face with beautiful, tender eyes. Perhaps they had the following conversation: Adam: You were not here before I slept. She: Yes. He: From what…? She: I came out of you. Allah created me while you were asleep. Do you not desire to restore me to you while you are awake? He: Why has Allah created you? She: To be your solace. He: Thanks to Allah I was feeling lonely. Eve’s Name The angels asked him her name. He replied: “Eve (Hawwa).” They asked: “Why did you call her Eve?” Adam said: “Because she was created of me, and I am a living being.” (The root of the name Hawwa” means “living things.”) Adam Sees Eve Ibn Abbas and a group of the companions of the Prophet narrated that when Iblis was sent out of Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was alone in Paradise and did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquility. He slept for some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman whom Allah had created from his ribs. So he asked her: “Who are you?” She replied: “A woman.” He asked: “Why have you been created?” She replied: “So that you could find tranquility in me.” The angels, trying to find out the extent of his knowledge, asked him: “What is her name, 0 Adam?” He replied: “Eve.” They asked: “Why was she so named?” He replied: “Because she was created from something living.” Eve’s Creation Muhammad Ibn Ishaaq and Ibn ‘Abbas related that Eve was created from the shortest left rib of Adam while he was sleeping, and after a while she was clothed with flesh. That is why Allah the Exalted said: 0 Mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam) and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women. Surah 4: 1 Allah also said: It is He Who has created you from a single person (Adam), and (then) He created from him his wife (Eve), in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her. Surah 7: 189 Adam’s Progeny Accept Allah Allah the Almighty revealed: And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or from Adam’s loin his offspring) and made them testify as to themselves (saying): “Am I not your Lord?” They said: “Yes! We testify,” lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection: “Verily, we have been unaware of this.” Or lest you should say: “It was only our fathers aforetime who took others as partners in worship along with Allah, and we were (merely their) descendants after them; will you then destroy us because of the deeds of men who practiced Al-Batil (i.e. polytheism and committing crimes and sins, invoking and worshipping others besides Allah)?” Thus do We explain the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail, so that they may turn (unto the truth).’ Surah 7: 172-174 Adam’s progeny declared: “Our Lord, we bear witness that You are our Lord; we have no other Lord but Allah.” Allah raised their father Adam, and he looked at them and saw those of them who were rich, those who were poor, those who had good forms and those who did not. Adam said: “0 Allah! I wish You to make Your servants equal.” Allah replied: “I love being thanked.” Adam saw among the prophets like lamps among his progeny. The Prophet’s Covenant Almighty Allah declared: And (remember) when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you (0 Muhammad), and from Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, and Isa – son of Mary. We took from them a strong covenant. Surah 33: 7 In another verse Allah the Exalted commanded: “So set you (0 Muhammad) your face towards the religion of pure Islamic Monotheism Hanifan (worship none but Allah Alone) Allah’s Fitrah (i.e. Allah’s Islamic Monotheism), with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in khalqillah (i.e. the Religion of Allah – Islamic Monotheism), that is the straight religion, but most men know not.” Surah 30:30 The Forbidden Tree – Allah’s Warning to Adam and Eve Adam and Eve were admitted to Paradise and there they lived the dream of all human beings. Allah permitted them to approach and enjoy everything except one tree, that might have been the Tree of Pain or the Tree of Knowledge. Allah forbade them before they were given abode in Paradise: “0 Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimeen (wrong-doers). ” Surah 2: 35 Adam and Eve understood that they were forbidden to eat the fruit of that tree. Adam was, however, a human being, and man tends to forget. His heart changes and his will weakens. Iblis summoned all the envy within him and took advantage of Adam’s humanity to exploit him. He started to whisper to him day after day, coaxing him: “Shall I guide you to the Tree of Immortality and the Eternal Kingdom?” And he said to them: “Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.” And he (Satan) swore by Allah to them both (saying): “Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.” Surah 7: 20-21 Adam asked himself: “What will happen if I eat from this tree? It might truly be the Tree of Immortality.” His dream was to live forever in the pure innocence of Paradise. Years went by, and Adam and Eve were preoccupied with thoughts of that tree. Then, one day, they decided to eat of its fruit. They forgot that Allah had warned them not to approach it and that Iblis was their sworn enemy. Adam stretched out his hand, picked one of the fruits, and offered it to Eve. They both ate of the forbidden tree. Allah Almighty told us: “So he Satan misled them with deception. “2 Surah 7: 22 Allah also said: Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray. Surah 20: 121 Adam had hardly finished eating when he felt his heart contract, and he was filled with pain, sadness, and shame. The surrounding atmosphere had changed and the internal music had stopped. He discovered that he and his wife were naked, so they both started cutting tree leaves with which to cover themselves. Allah the Almighty addressed him: “Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Satan is an open enemy unto you?” They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” (Allah) said: “Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (i.e., Adam, Eve, and Satan, etc.). On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, – for a time.” He said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (i.e. resurrected).” Surah 7: 22-25 They left Paradise and descended upon the earth. Adam was sad and Eve was crying. Allah accepted their repentance because it was sincere, and He told them that the earth would be their realm and origin where they would live and die and whence they would come on the Day of Judgment. Encounter Between Adam and Musa (PBUT) – Hadith Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: “Adam and Musa argued with each other. Musa said to Adam: Your sin expelled you from Paradise. Adam said to him: ‘You are Musa whom Allah selected as His messenger and as the one to whom He spoke directly. Yet you blame me for a thing which had already been written in my fate before my Creation?’ Allah’s Prophet Muhammad said twice: “So, Adam outclassed Musa.” Umar Ibn Al-Khattab also narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: “Musa said: ‘My Lord! May I see Adam who removed us and himself from the Paradise?’ So Allah made him see Adam, and he said to him: ‘Are you Adam?’ Adam said: ‘Yes.’ And he said: ‘Were you the one in whom Allah breathed His spirit, and before whom He bowed His angels, and to whom He taught the names of all things?’ Adam answered: ‘Yes.’ So Musa said: ‘What made you remove us and yourself from Paradise?’ Adam said unto him: ‘Who are you?’ He said: ‘I am Musa.’ Adam said: ‘So you are Musa the prophet of the Children of Israel. Were you the one Allah spoke to directly?’ Musa answered: ‘Yes.’ Adam said: ‘Why do you blame me for a matter which Allah had predestined?”‘ So Allah’s Prophet Muhammad said twice. “Adam outclassed Musa.” Adam’s Life on Earth Adam knew he bade farewell to peace when he left Paradise. On earth he had to face conflict and struggle. No sooner had one ended than another began. He also had to toil to sustain himself. He had to protect himself with clothes and weapons and protect his wife and children from the wild beasts. Above all, he had to struggle with the spirit of evil. Satan, the cause of his expulsion from Paradise, continued to beguile him and his children in an effort to have them thrown into the eternal hellfire. The battle between good and evil is continuous, but those who follow Allah’s guidance should fear nothing, while those who disobey Allah and follow Iblis will be damned along with him. Adam grasped all of this, and, with the knowledge of this suffering, he started his life on the earth. The only thing that allayed his grief was that he was master of the earth and had to make it yield to him. He was the one who had to perpetuate, cultivate, construct and populate the earth. He was also the one who had to procreate and raise children who would change and improve the world. The First Four Children The pinnacle of earthly bliss was reached when Adam and Eve witnessed the birth of their first children, a set of twins. Adam was a devoted father and Eve a contented mother. The twins were Qabil (Cain) and his sister. Later Eve gave birth to a second set of twins, Habil (Abel) and his sister. The family enjoyed the bounties and fruits of the earth provided by their Lord. The children grew up to be strong and healthy young adults. Qabil tilled the land, while Habil raised cattle. Qabil’s Disobedience The time arrived when the two young men desired life partners. This was part of Allah’s plan for mankind, to multiply and form nations with different cultures and colors. Allah revealed to Adam that he should marry each son to the twin sister of the other. Adam instructed his children according to Allah’s command, but Qabil was displeased with the partner chosen for him, for Habil’s twin-sister was not as beautiful as his own. Commentary: Qabil’s Disobedience It appears that since the beginning of time, physical beauty has been a factor in the attraction between men and women. This attraction caused Qabil to envy his brother Habil. He rebelled against Allah’s command by refusing to accept his father’s advice.At first glance Qabil’s rebellion might appear strange, but we should remember that, although man has a pure nature, the potential for dichotomy exists. In other words, he has both good and bad qualities. He can become greedy, covetous, possessive, selfish and even destructive. Man is, therefore, capable of seeking self-satisfaction even if it leads to failure in this life and in the hereafter. The path to goodness lies in harnessing the enemy within him, his baser self, by controlling evil thoughts and deeds and practicing moderation in his desires and actions. His reward then will be the delights of this world and the hereafter. Thus Allah tests us through our divided nature. Qabil’s Jealousy of Habil Adam was in a dilemma. He wanted peace and harmony in his family, so he invoked Allah for help. Allah commanded that each son offer a sacrifice, and he whose offering was accepted would have right on his side. Habil offered his best camel, while Qabil offered his worst grain. His sacrifice was not accepted by Allah because of his disobedience to his father and the insincerity in his offering.This enraged Qabil even further. Realizing that his hopes of marrying his own beautiful sister were fading, he threatened his brother: “I will kill you! I refuse to see you happy while I remain unhappy!”Habil, feeling sorry for his brother, replied: “It would be more proper for you, my brother, to search for the cause of your unhappiness and then walk in the way of peace. Allah accepts deeds only from those who serve and fear Him, not from those who reject His commands.” The First Death Habil was intelligent, obedient, and always ready to obey the will of Allah. This contrasted sharply with his brother, who was arrogant, selfish and disobedient to his Lord. Habil did not fear his brother’s threats, but neither did he want his brother to be hurt. Allah had blessed Habil with purity and compassion. Hoping to allay the hatred seething in his brother, Habil said: “My brother, you are deviating from the right path and are sinful in your decisions. It is better that you repent to Allah and forget about your foolish threat. But if you do not, then I will leave the matter in the hands of Allah. You alone will bear the consequence of your sin, for the Fire is the reward of the wrong-doers.” This brotherly plea did nothing to lessen the hatred in Qabil’s heart, nor did he show fear of Allah’s punishment. Even familial considerations were cast aside. Qabil struck his brother with a stone, killing him instantly. This was the first death and the first criminal act committed by man on earth.When Habil had not appeared for some time, Adam began to search for him but found no trace of his beloved son. He asked Qabil about Habil’s whereabouts. Qabil insolently replied that he was not his brother’s keeper nor his protector. From these words his father understood that Habil was dead and Adam was filled with grief. The First Burial Meanwhile, Qabil did not know what to do with his brother’s corpse. He carried it on his back wandering from place to place, trying to hide it. His anger had now subsided, and his conscience was saddled with guilt. He was tiring under the burden of the corpse which had started to have a stench. As a mercy, and to show that dignity could be retained even in death, Allah sent two ravens that began fighting, causing the death of one. The victorious bird used its beak and claws to dig a hole in the ground, rolled its victim into it and covered it with sand.Witnessing this, Qabil was overcome with shame and remorse. “Woe unto me!” he exclaimed. “I was unable to do what this raven has done, that is to hide my brother’s corpse.” Qabil then buried his brother. This was also the first burial of man. The First Murder – from Qur’an Allah the Almighty revealed: And (0 Muhammad) recite to them (the Jews) the story of the two sons of Adam Habil and Qabil – Habil and Qabil respectively in truth; when each offered a sacrifice (to Allah), it was accepted from the one but not from the other. The latter said to the former: “I will surely kill you.”The former said: “Verily, Allah accepts only from those who are Al-Muttaqeen (the pious). If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me, I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you, for I fear Allah; the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, jinn, and all that exists). Verily I intend to let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours, then you will be one of the dwellers of the Fire, and that is the recompense of the Zalimeen (polyt heists, and wrong-doers).” So the Nafs (self) of the other (latter one) encouraged him and made fair-seeming to him the murder of his brother; he murdered him and became one of the losers. Then Allah sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his brother. He (the murderer) said: “Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?” Then he became one of those who regretted. Surah 5:27-31 The First Murder – from Various Hadith:- Ibn Abbas, Ibn Masud and a group of the companions of the Prophet related that inter-marriage of the male of one pregnancy with the female of another had been in practice among Adam’s children. Habil wanted to marry Qabil’s sister, but Qabil wanted her for himself because she was very beautiful. Adam ordered him to give her in marriage to his brother, but he refused. So Adam ordered both of them to offer a sacrifice, then went to Mecca (Makkah) to perform the pilgrimage. After Adam had left, they offered their sacrifices: Habil offered a fat lamb – he was a shepherd – while Qabil offered a bundle of the worst grain. A fire descended and devoured Habil’s sacrifice, leaving that of Qabil, so he became angry and said: “I will surely kill you so that you will not marry my sister.” Habil replied: “Allah accepts from those who fear Him.”According to Abu Jaafar Al-Baqer, Adam was watching their offering and was sure that Habil’s sacrifice would be accepted. Qabil complained to Adam that the acceptance was due to his supplication for Habil and that he had not done the same for him, so he promised his father to settle the matter between himself and his brother. One night, Habil was late returning from tending his flock. Adam sent Qabil to see what had happened to him. When he found him, he glared at him saying: “Yours was accepted, and mine was not.” Habil replied: “Allah only accepts from the Allah-fearing.” Qabil became angry on hearing this and hit him with a piece of iron that was with him, thus killing him. In another version it was said that he killed him with a rock to the head while he was sleeping. Adam Preaches to His Children:- Adam was utterly grief-stricken by the loss of his two sons: one was dead, the other was won over by the devil. Adam prayed for his son and turned to mundane matters, for he had to toil for his sustenance. At the same time, he was a prophet, advising his children and grandchildren, telling them about Allah, and calling them to believe in Him. He told them about Iblis and warned them by recounting his own experience with the devil and of how the devil had tempted Qabil to kill his brother. Adam’s Successor, Shiith Years and years passed, Adam grew old, and his children spread all over the earth. Muhammad Ibn Ishaq related: that when Adam’s death drew near, he appointed his son Shiith (Seth) to be his successor, and taught him the hours of the day and night along with their appropriate acts of worship. He also foretold to him the flood that would come. Abu Dhar narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: “Allah sent down one hundred four psalms, of which fifty were sent down to Shiith.” Adam’s Death Abdullah Ibn Al-Iman Ahmad Ibn Hanbal narrated that Ubai Ibn Kab said: “When Adam’s death was near, he said to his children: ’0 my children, indeed, I feel an appetite for the fruits of Paradise.’ So they went away searching for what Adam had requested. They met with the angels, who had with them his shroud and what he was to be embalmed with. They said to them: ’0 Children of Adam, what are you searching for? What do you want? Where are you going?’ They said: ‘Our father is sick and has an appetite for the fruits of Paradise.’ The angels said to them: ‘Go back, for your father is going to meet his end soon.’ So they returned (with the angels), and when Eve saw them she recognized them. She tried to hide herself behind Adam. He said to her: ‘Leave me alone. I came before you; do not go between me and the angels of my Lord.’ So they took his soul, embalmed and wrapped him, dug the grave and laid him in it. They prayed on him and put him in his grave, saying: ’0 Children of Adam, this is your tradition at the time of death.”‘ Before his death Adam reassured his children that Allah would not leave man alone on the earth, but would send His prophets to guide them. The prophets would have different names, traits and miracles, but they would be united in one thing: the call to worship Allah alone. This was Adam’s bequest to his children. Adam finished speaking and closed his eyes. Then the angels entered his room and surrounded him. When he recognized the Angel of Death among them, his heart smiled peacefully. Successor After Adam After Adam’s death, his son Shiith took over the responsibilities of prophethood, according to a hadith narrated by Abu Dhar. Abu Dhar also narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: “Allah sent down one hundred four psalms, of which fifty were sent down to Shiith.” When the time of his death came, Shiith’s son Anoush succeeded him. He in turn, was succeeded by his son Qinan, who was succeeded by his son Mahlabeel. The Persians claim that Mahlabeel was the King of the Seven Regions, that he was the first one to cut down trees to build cities and large forts and that he built the cities of Babylonia. He reigned for a period of forty years. When he died his duties were taken over by his son Yard, who on his death, bequeathed them to his son Khonoukh, who is Idris according to the majority of the scholars (Ulama).